Alfabeto Árabe, Te reto a que te lo aprendas…!!!

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“Alfabeto Árabe”

También conocido como Alifato, es la escritura usada en muchas lenguas de Asia y África, tales como el árabe, el persa y el urdu. Es el segundo alfabeto más extendido a nivel mundial, sólo detrás del alfabeto latino.

El alifato tiene características similares al alfabeto hebreo, en este sentido es un abyad. Esto se refiere al hecho de que las vocales cortas no se transcriben en la mayoría de libros y publicaciones, sino que han de deducirse del contexto. Esta situación se ve aliviada con el hecho de que las lenguas semíticas ponen la mayor parte de su significado en consonantes y vocales largas, que sí son transcritas. Posee 28 letras.

La escritura árabe actual data del siglo IV y recibe el nombre de nasji para diferenciarla de la primitiva escritura más redondeada llamada cúfica, de Kufa.

frases-en-arabe-y-su-significado-tatuajes

La escritura árabe es una escritura  que su forma de la letra está influida por la posición que ocupa en la palabra. Se escribe de derecha a izquierda, no tiene mayúsculas y no se permite la división de la palabra a final de renglón; en cambio, es posible alargar los trazos de unión entre letras tanto como se quiera, a fin de que el texto quede alineado.

La caligrafía árabe se considera un arte por derecho propio. Dado que el islam sunní prohíbe la representación de seres animados, la arquitectura islámica (mezquitas y palacios) suele usar versículos del Corán delicadamente escritos.

ltre 2

 

En cuanto a la lectura, el alfabeto agrupa las letras por similitud gráfica. Muchos grafemas tienen un mismo trazo básico y se distinguen entre sí gracias a unos puntos situados encima o debajo del trazo.

Estos puntos se incorporaron en la época de la expansión islámica: hasta entonces, la escritura se utilizaba poco y frecuentemente como una especie de taquigrafía de uso personal para elaborar registros, contratos, albaranes, etc. Las necesidades ligadas a la administración del nuevo Estado islámico, así como a la correcta transmisión del Corán hicieron necesario el perfeccionamiento del sistema de escritura.

Las letras representan consonantes. En caso de necesidad pueden utilizarse unos signos diacríticos adicionales para representar las vocales breves. Dichos signos se usan sobre todo en textos didácticos y en escritos cuya correcta vocalización se considera especialmente importante, como el Corán. De hecho, se inventaron precisamente para asegurar la correcta transmisión del libro sagrado, sobre todo entre musulmanes no árabes.

En caso de que no se utilicen los diacríticos vocálicos, que es el caso en la mayoría de los textos, para una correcta lectura el lector debe conocer la palabra o bien deducir su vocalización por su morfología y por el contexto. Esta es una característica común a todas las escrituras alfabéticas semíticas. 

Las vocales largas pueden deducirse de la presencia de las semiconsonantes ي (Y) y و (W), que por lo general aparecen unidas a las vocales breves i y u para dar las correspondientes largas, y por el signo álif ( ا ), que tiene la misma función con la vocal a.

Salvo contadísimas excepciones, a cada grafema corresponde un fonema, esto es, no existen letras mudas ni letras que en determinadas posiciones, o unidas a otras, tengan un valor distinto al que les corresponde en principio.

mapa lengua

En los árabes hablados algunas letras tienen varios valores diferente al que tienen en árabe clásico. Muchas veces, estas particularidades locales de pronunciación se mantienen cuando el hablante intenta utilizar el árabe estándar, por lo que se indican en el apartado de descripción de las letras.

Pero conviene aclarar que el árabe estándar tiene una pronunciación estándar, que es la que se enseña en las escuelas y que se considera universalmente como “la mejor”. Así pues, a pesar de que muchos egipcios pronunciarán “ʔalbek” en lugar de “qalbuk” cuando hablan en su casa, cualquier locutor árabe de televisión, ya sea egipcio o de otro país, pronunciará siempre la letra qaf como una oclusiva uvular.

alfabeto-arabe

Álif – ا 

No tiene un sonido determinado. Puede servir de soporte a una vocal inicial, a una hamza, representar una vocal a larga, o servir como distintivo ortográfico para ciertos finales. No se une a la letra siguiente (aunque sí a la anterior) y sólo tiene una forma, la de trazo vertical.

Ba’ – ب 

Es un simple trazo horizontal con un punto debajo. Se lee como la letra b en barco. Se une a la letra siguiente.

Ta’ – ت

Es como la anterior pero con dos puntos encima y no tiene punto debajo. Suena como la t española en atar.

Tha’ – ث

Suena como el sonido de la z española peninsular en rezar, zona, o como el sonido inglés th de think. En ciertos dialectos, como por ejemplo el marroquí, suele pronunciarse igual que la ta’. Es como las dos anteriores pero con tres puntos encima. También como ellas se une a la siguiente.

Ğim o Ŷim – ج

Suena como la j francesa o, más fuerte, como la j inglesa. Se une a la letra siguiente, y se dibuja como una ceja con un punto inferior, con un trazo final semicircular si va en posición final o aislada. En el dialecto egipcio y otras variedades locales se pronuncia como la g oclusiva en engañar.

Ḥa’ – ح

Es en todo igual a la letra anterior pero sin el punto inferior. Representa un sonido inexistente en español, una aspiración realizada en la faringe.

 

Ḫa’ – خ

Es igual que las dos anteriores pero con el punto encima de la letra y no en su interior. Representa el sonido de la letra j del español en su realización castellana como en Juan, Jorge y Jaime, aunque suele pronunciarse algo más fuerte en árabe.

 

Dal – د

Representa el sonido d español a principio de palabra, como en la primera d de dado. No se une con la letra siguiente y sólo tiene una forma.

 

Ḏal – ذ

Representa el sonido igual al de la segunda d de dado en castellano, o la th inglesa en this. Es en todo igual a la letra anterior pero lleva un punto encima mientras que la anterior no lleva ninguno. Se pronuncia frecuentemente como la zay o como la dal en árabe hablado.

 

Ra’ – ر

Representa el sonido r en cara. Tiene la forma de un sencillo trazo descendente. No se une con la siguiente y sólo tiene una forma.

 

Zay – ز

Igual que la anterior pero con un punto encima. Su sonido es el de una s sonora, como la z inglesa en zoo, o el alófono de s en la palabra desde en su pronunciación castellana.

 

Sin – س

 Representa el sonido de s. Su trazo principal es de dos valles, teniendo un trazo final hacia abajo en caso de posición final o aislada. Esta letra se une con la siguiente.

 

Shin – ش

Representa el sonido de x catalana, sh inglesa, sch alemana, sci italiana, o ch francesa y portuguesa. Es igual que la anterior pero con tres puntos encima.

 

Ṣad – ص

Es un sonido similar a la s pero pronunciado de un modo especial, que se denomina enfático. Estas letras enfáticas se pronuncian con la parte posterior de la lengua algo más levantada de lo normal, lo que modifica el timbre de las vocales del entorno oscureciendo un poco, e incluso afecta a otras consonantes del entorno.

 

Ḍad – ض

Es una d enfática. Es en su forma igual a la letra anterior pero con un punto arriba. La lengua árabe se llamó la lengua de la Ḍad, pues algunos creyeron que este fonema es exclusivo del árabe, aunque quizá esto no sea cierto. Esta letra se une con la siguiente.

 

Ṭa’ – ط

Es una t enfática absolutamente sorda. Sólo tiene una forma. Se une a la letra siguiente.

 

Ẓa’ – ظ

Es una d enfática. Es un fonema interdental que se realiza sin problemas colocando la lengua entre los dientes y pronunciando una d, pero además haciéndola enfática. Es en su forma igual a la letra anterior, pero con un punto encima. En los dialectos del Magreb suele pronunciarse como la ḍad.

 

ʿayn – ع

No tiene equivalente en ninguna lengua europea. Es un sonido fricativo producido por constricción de la faringe. Tiene tres formas y se une con la letra siguiente.

 

Ġayn – غ

No existe este sonido en castellano, pues aunque es un sonido parecido a nuestra g en agotado, es un sonido mucho más fuerte. Se parece a la r francesa. Tiene igual forma que la anterior pero con un punto encima.

 

Fa’ – ف

Suena como f. Se representa con un pequeño anillo con un punto encima, con un trazo final hacia delante para la posición final o aislada. Se une con la siguiente. En el Maghreb todavía se pueden encontrar en escritos del siglo XIX y XX la letra fa’ con el punto debajo de la letra ( ڥ ) representando el signo ﻒ la qaf.

 

Qaf – ق

Se podría aproximar a una c dura castellana pronunciada en la úvula. Es igual a la anterior, con dos puntos en lugar de uno, salvo por el trazo final, que se hace por debajo del renglón. Se une con la siguiente. En muchos dialectos se pronuncia con el sonido del ataque vocal oclusivo de la hamza, y en otros como una qaf sonora [ɢ] o una g oclusiva [g].

 

Kaf – ك

Sonido de c en casa. Tiene dos formas distintas opcionales cuando está en posición final. Se une a la letra que la sigue.

 

Lam – ل

Representa el sonido l. Se escribe como un trazo vertical, y se diferencia de la álif en que ésta sí se une con la siguiente. Cuando la sigue una álif, forma la ligaduraلا, denominada lam-álif.

 

Mim – م

Sonido m. Tiene tres posibles formas y se une con la siguiente.

 

Nun – ن

Sonido n. Se escribe como el grupo de la ba, ta’ y ṯa’, salvo que las formas final y aislada salen por debajo del renglón.

 

Ha’ – ه

Sonido aspirado suave, como la pronunciación de j de las regiones del sur de España y en la zona caribeña, o la h aspirada inglesa y alemana. Tiene tres formas y se une con la siguiente. Junto con los dos puntos de la ta’ forma la tāʾ marbūṭa (ة), que generalmente indica el género femenino.

 

Waw – و

Sólo tiene una forma y se une con la anterior pero no con la siguiente. Como consonante representa una semivocal como la u en hueso; puede servir para denotar una vocal u larga o de soporte para la hamza.

 

Ya’ – ي

Se une con la siguiente y se escribe como ba, ta’ y ṯa’ en posición inicial e interior, pero tiene forma propia aislada y final. Como consonante representa una semivocal como la i en hierro (evitando pronunciar como y castellana); como vocal, denota i larga, o puede servir como soporte para la hamza. Posee la variante ى, que se llama álif maqsura y se utiliza como terminación; se pronuncia entonces como una a larga.

 

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