Caligrafía Árabe, Un Arte Que Nos Maravilla…..!!

 

Caligrafía Árabe

La caligrafía árabe en idioma árabe (fann al-jaṭṭ – arte de la línea) es un arte decorativo propio de los pueblos que utilizan el alfabeto árabe y sus variantes. Se suele considerar como la principal de las artes islámicas.

El desarrollo del arte caligráfico árabe, como el de la propia escritura, está íntimamente ligado a la expansión del Islam a partir del siglo VII. Hasta ese momento, la cultura árabe se transmitía sobre todo oralmente, y aunque los árabes tenían un alfabeto propio, no usaban la escritura más que para anotaciones de carácter mnemotécnico, contabilidad comercial, epitafios y otros usos de poca importancia.

En el alfabeto árabe de la época no existían los puntos que hoy distinguen unas letras de otras: así,  pues sólo se escribía el trazo básico común a todas ellas. El lector debía hacer un esfuerzo suplementario de interpretación según el contexto, lo que generalmente no suponía un problema dado que a menudo el lector era el escritor mismo o alguien que en cualquier caso ya tenía una idea de lo que estaba escrito.

Arabic calligraphy

Primero en Arabia y luego en territorios de lengua no árabe, plantea dos cuestiones. La primera, la necesidad de fijar el texto del Corán para facilitar su transmisión entre personas no arabófonas, garantizando al mismo tiempo la inalterabilidad del texto. Es entonces cuando se perfecciona el alfabeto de modo que cada signo representa un único sonido: se inventa el punto, a partir del cual se crean letras diferentes al añadirlo a lo que hasta entonces eran trazos comunes para representar diferentes fonemas. Más adelante se inventó una notación vocálica que se añade a la escritura como signos diacríticos.

Los estilos caligráficos eran básicamente dos, relacionados con el soporte de la escritura. Sobre materiales duros se grababan unas letras más esquemáticas, de aspecto cuadrado, mientras que para soportes blandos se utilizaba una letra cursiva. El primer estilo dará lugar a la escritura cúfica, llamada así por haberse desarrollado en Kufa (Irak), de carácter ornamental y solemne que a su vez derivará en varios estilos. 

El desarrollo de la caligrafía como arte va ligado al hecho de que el islam prohíbe la adoración de representaciones figurativas y es así como la caligrafía ofrece en los lugares sagrados un sustituto a la decoración figurativa. En lugar de representar a Dios o al profeta, o cualquier otro motivo figurativo relacionado con la religión, el arte islámico los sustituye por la representación caligráfica de sus nombres, o por frases extraídas del Corán, particularmente la basmala.

En cuanto a su técnica, el instrumento habitual para la escritura es el cálamo (en árabe, qalam), utilizado aún hoy en día para la caligrafía artística. El cálamo es una caña en cuyo extremo se hace un corte transversal: dicho corte determina la alternancia entre trazos gruesos y finos característica de la mayoría de los estilos caligráficos.

Hay estilos caligráficos menos conocidos que usan otros instrumentos: los musulmanes de China, por ejemplo, usaban el pincel propio de los calígrafos chinos, dando a la caligrafía árabe ejecutada de este modo una apariencia muy peculiar.

El cálamo, llamado qalam al-khat (pluma de caligrafía) es un instrumento importante para los calígrafos. Para preparar un buen cálamo, el calígrafo debe conocer la calidad del material (bambú o junco), así como tener habilidad para afilar de manera correcta.

cortes-calamo

calamo

La tinta, tradicionalmente eran hechas de hollín disuelto en goma arábiga y agua. Eran colocadas en pequeños tinteros con seda cruda en el fondo, para evitar que el cálamo absorbiera demasiada tinta y prevenir los borrones en la escritura. Hoy día hay disponible una gran variedad de tintas preparadas. Algunos calígrafos utilizan tinta china por ser la más parecida a la arábiga.

Instrumentos ligados a escrita Arabe

Instrumentos ligados a escrita Arabe

El papel fue creado en China y cuando llegó hasta los árabes, marcó decisivamente el arte de la escritura. El papel pasó a ser fabricado primeramente en Bagdad (Iraq), después llegó a Siria y Egipto. Era hecho con algodón, seda y otras fibras y después pulido para facilitar la escritura.

papel para caligrafia arabe

La caligrafía árabe posee seis estilos principales: Thuluth, Ruqa’a, Farsi, Diwani, Kufiy Nash. Los caracteres árabes pueden ser escritos de diferentes maneras para adquirir formas de monumentos, flores, objetos y hasta animales. Esto le confiere una riqueza ornamental prácticamente ilimitada.

La palabra “PAZ” en los principales Estilos

paz en arabe

Thuluth

Primera escritura formulada en siglo VII, durante el período de la Dinastía Omeya, se desarrolló por completo hacia el final del siglo IX. El estilo thuluth es una de las escrituras ornamentales más importantes. Se caracteriza por las letras curvas y trazos pequeños en la parte superior de las letras que son ligadas y algunas veces entrecortadas.

thuluth

Ruqa’a

La escritura ruqa’a nació de los estilos naskh y thuluth. Es redondeada y estructurada de una forma más densa, con pequeños trazos horizontales. Una de las favoritas de los calígrafos otomanos, fue empleada por calígrafos hasta transformarse en una de las escrituras más populares y ampliamente usadas.

ruqaa

Farsi

Estilo desarrollado por los persas a partir de una escritura árabe antigua y poco conocida llamada firamuz. También llamada ta’liq, actualmente goza de aceptación entre los árabes y es el estilo caligráfico más comúnmente utilizado entre los musulmanes persas, hindús y turcos.

farsi

Diwani

Estilo muy empleado por la cancillería del Imperio Otomano, el diwani se caracteriza por sus bellas curvas. Concilia de maravilla la libertad de creación y el rigor de la escritura, permitiendo representar de manera sutil cualquier imagen sólo con letras árabes.

diwani

Naskh

La escritura naskh  ganó popularidad por medio del famoso calígrafo Ibn Muqla, en el siglo X. Más tarde fue reformulada por Ibn Bawwab y otros que la transformaron en una escritura muy empleada en el Corán por ser relativamente fácil de leer y escribir. Se caracteriza por los trazos pequeños horizontales y curvas llenas y profundas.

naskh

Kufi

La escritura cúfica fue la escritura sagrada dominante en los primeros días del Islam. Creada en Iraq en el siglo VIII, tenía medidas proporcionales específicas, con líneas cuadradas y ángulos bien pronunciados. Por su construcción geométrica podía ser adaptada a cualquier espacio y material. 

kufi

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